Depth of social exclusion
We arrived at our composite measure of exclusion by giving weightings to each of the 30 indicators we used – such as low income, unemployment, poor English and poor physical health – to determine a combined score.
Three-quarters of Australians score less than 1 (using the latest data, from 2016). People scoring above a total of 1 on our scale are considered to be experiencing some level of exclusion.
People’s experiences of social exclusion can then be divided into three levels: marginal exclusion, deep exclusion and very deep exclusion.
People scoring 1–2 on our scale are considered to be experiencing marginal social exclusion.
In 2007, almost 20% of Australians were marginally excluded (down from 24% in 2001). From 2008 there was a slight increase in marginal exclusion, with 20.4% of Australians experiencing this level of exclusion in 2016.
People scoring 2 or more on our scale are considered to be experiencing deep social exclusion.
In 2007, 5.5% of Australians were experiencing deep exclusion (down from 7.5% in 2001). Over the next ten years the rate of deep exclusion has shown little change, and remains at 5.3% in 2016. This means that more than one million Australians still experience deep social exclusion.
People scoring 3 or more on our scale are considered to be experiencing very deep social exclusion.
In 2007, 1% of Australians were very deeply excluded. By 2016, this figure fell slightly to 0.9%, which means that more than 176,000 Australians experience very deep social exclusion.
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The social exclusion monitor is the work of the Brotherhood of St Laurence and the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research (MIAESR). This page was updated using analysis of Wave 16 of the HILDA Survey in December 2018.